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Urban Lectures (en inglés)

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The urban lectures are a free resource of video lectures, including synopsis, biographies and additional reading materials, open to use for academic, professional or personal purposes.
Global Urban Lectures - Accessing the knowledge of UN-Habitat associated experts
In April 2014 UN-Habitat launched the Global Urban Lectures – lecture packages focused on subjects related to cities and urbanization. Each package consists of a 15 min video, a synopsis of the topic, a biography of the speaker and links to in depth study. The speakers are associated with UN-Habitat’s work, recruited from universities, think-tanks, governments, NGO’s, and private sector institutions. The series wishes to demonstrate a sound evidence-based analysis of a given problem and issues at stake, identify propositions to address them and provide examples that demonstrate how such propositions actually work, are being tested or have been implemented. All lecture packages are available free of charge, find them in the tabs below. The Global Urban Lectures continuously launches new materials. To receive notifications of our newly released lectures, do either of the following: Subscribe to the UN-Habitat YouTube channel Follow us on Twitter Like the UN-Habitat Facebook page
How to apply the series in your work or studies
The lectures in the series can be used either separately as stand-alone sessions, or as a group of thematic sessions to meet the needs of different users and purposes. Examples of how to use the series: 1. For self-learning and as a refresher course. 2. As addition to existing curricula and regular courses offered by universities and training institutions (eg. using the videos as ‘guest lecturers’ or teasers in the syllabus of regular courses) 3. As resource materials for new curricula and course development. 4. To screen in public events as introduction to debates on subjects relevant to cities and urban development The Global Urban Lectures target a wide and global audience comprised of universities, urban practitioners, researchers and policy makers, as well as the general public interested in cities and sustainable urbanization. We welcome you to use this series in your work.
Contact
The Global Urban Lectures are produced by Habitat UNI, UN-Habitat’s partnership with universities worldwide. For feedback, questions and suggestions, contact UNI@unhabitat.org, cc: asa.isacson@unhabitat.org
SEASON TWO

Following the success of the first season, which quickly became the top viewed and shared outreach initiative of UN-Habitat, the second season continues with 8 new speakers working with UN-Habitat in the urban arena. Meeting the feedback from the first season, this season also brings the opportunity to download the series as MP3s, to listen to on the go. Download the full pdf with all synopses, biographies and links here.

Principles of Planned Urbanization - Dr. Joan Clos, Executive Director UN-Habitat
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In this lecture, Dr Clos discusses planned versus spontaneous urbanization, the issues this entails and three concrete principles for planning sustainable cities. Together they form a three-legged approach to sustainable urbanization.
E.DIn this opening session for the second season of the Global Urban Lecture Series, Dr. Joan Clos introduces three fundamental principles behind planned urbanization: Rules and Regulations, Urban Design, and a Financial Plan. Together they form a three legged approach towards sustainable urbanization.. Starting point for the lecture is the distinction between spontaneous and planned urbanization. A planned urbanization emphasises the benefits of cities, such as the capacity to generate wealth, employment, as well as coexistence benefits and the diversity of cultural exchanges. A spontaneous urbanization on the other side usually doesnt provide enough public space, enough basic services or attention to the principles of good urbanization that would enable its citizens to enjoy the benefits of living in a city. As most of the urbanization in the developing world currently is spontaneous, Dr Clos goes through three essential principles to bare in mind as the world urbanizes, in order to achieve planned urbanization and avoid the pitfalls of a spontaneous development. The first principle involves “Rules and Regulations”. Rules and regulations have the power to shape the form and character of the city. Within this principle, three specific areas are of essence: the regulation of public space, the building rights, and the building codes regulating the quality and standards of buildings. Dr. Clos place specific emphasis on the public space, as the quality of this space is what is ultimately going to determine the quality of the rest of the city. The second principle is ‘Urban Design’. Within this principle Dr. Clos discusses the areas of spatial layout, design of the open space, and the importance of a well planned street pattern. The third principle deals with the “Financial Plan”, in which the budget, the local authority taxation system and central government funds are discussed. Within this principle, Dr. Clos also brings up the concepts of value sharing and land readjustment, as it is important to think in innovative manners when planning modern cities, Dr. Clos mentions that concepts such as these should be incorporated in the financial plan from the start. In closing, Dr. Clos stresses the need to balance these three principles, as their interconnectivity is of the utmost essence in a achieving successfully planned sustainable cities.
Since October 2010, Dr. Joan Clos is the Executive Director of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) at the level of Undersecretary-General by the United Nations General Assembly. Dr. Clos is a medical doctor with a distinguished career in public service and diplomacy. He was twice elected Mayor of Barcelona serving two terms during the years 1997-2006. He was Minister of Industry, Tourism and Trade of Spain between 2006 and 2008. Prior to joining the United Nations, he served as Spanish ambassador to Turkey and Azerbaijan. At the international level, Dr. Clos has previously served as President of Metropolis – international network of cities; President of the World Association of Cities and Local Authorities, (WACLAC) ; Chairman of the United Nations Advisory Committee of Local Authorities, (UNACLA), and member of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions, (CEMR). Dr. Clos has received a number of awards, including a gold medal from the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1999 for transforming Barcelona, and in 2002 he won the UN-Habitat Scroll of Honour Award for encouraging global cooperation between local authorities and the United Nations.
 
Too Pressed To Wait - Jane Weru, Executive Director Akiba Mashinani Trust
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Jane Weru, Executive Director of Akiba Mashinani Trust,in her lecture “Too Pressed To Wait” discusses the water and sanitation hygiene systems in informal settlements in Nairobi, and how they are causing a strain on both the physical and psychological health of people who live and work in these settlements, in particular women and girls.
Jane Weru Jane Weru in this lecture highlights the plight of women and girls living in informal settlements in Nairobi, with special regard to the poor sanitation conditions prevalent in informal settlements in the city. The lecture is based on the realization that the water and sanitation hygiene systems in informal settlements in Nairobi are greatly lacking or inadequate, and that this state of affairs is causing a strain on both the physical and psychological health of people who live and work in these settlements, in particular women and girls. This situation is compounded by other challenges facing informal settlements such as land tenure insecurity, poverty and gender-based violence. Analysis of the evidence presented yields a practical approach to urban planning in the face of rapid urbanization. The Too Pressed To Wait lecture uses information obtained from two major informal settlements in Nairobi, Mukuru Kwa Njenga and Mukuru Kwa Reuben, and is based on the fact that basic human rights to life, to health and to dignity are all obstructed by inadequate water and sanitation systems. Propositions for addressing the issue

  1. The Land Tenure Proposition: the water and sanitation needs of dwellers in informal settlements cannot be met without first addressing the land tenure insecurity issues.
  2. The Right to Dignity Proposition: people face a loss of dignity when sanitation facilities are not available in the near vicinity. As the saying goes, water is life, sanitation is dignity.
  3. The Gender Violence Proposition: Any effort to improve sanitation in Nairobi’s slums must include efforts to reduce the culture of violence as well as the structural factors that enable violence against women to continue.
  4. The Affordable Housing Proposition: Akiba Mashinani Trust believes in the building of affordable housing units equipped with water and sanitation systems for slum dwellers as a way of tackling the persistent inadequacy of water and sanitation systems in informal settlements.
Jane Weru is a lawyer and holds a Master’s Degree in NGO Management from the London School of Economics. Her early work focused on public interest litigation on behalf of poor communities threatened with forceful evictions and violent demolitions. She helped found Pamoja Trust, a nonprofit organization that mobilized and supported grassroots movements of the urban poor by providing technical, legal and financial support. She is currently the Executive Director of Akiba Mashinani Trust (AMT), a nonprofit organization working on developing innovative community led solutions to housing and land tenure problems for the urban poor in Kenya. Jane has served as Team Leader for the Kenya Railway Relocation Action Plan for the Ministry of Transport supported by the World Bank. She is a Board Member of the Slum/Shack Dwellers International (SDI), an Ashoka Fellow and is also serving as a member of the National Task Force for the preparation of the Community Land Bill and the Evictions and Resettlement Bill.
mp3 iconToo Pressed to Wait – Jane Weru
 
Addressing Global Land Challenges - Clarissa Augustinus, UN-Habitat
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Addressing Global Land Challenges’ aims to introduce the land challenges facing the planet, and some of the solutions for creating sustainable cities associated to the land issue.
Clarissa Augustinus1 This lecture is based on the realization that the current global approach to land systems cannot meet the needs of the majority of people in developing countries in regard to security of tenure and it cannot supply the data/information necessary for sustainable cities. Innovative solutions are needed which work at scale, such as pro poor land information management systems, the continuum of land rights and participatory inclusive land readjustment. An analysis of the land systems of over 25 developing countries in all regions has shown that current systems are not coping. Serviced land cannot be delivered at scale. Planning is either not implemented, or not implemented as planned, at scale. To deliver at scale, a gap of 18 missing tools was identified. Global Land Tool Network partners have been developing these land tools to find solutions. The analytical framework for these tools is premised on the continuum of land rights and that the tools are pro poor and gender responsive; and that they will include the majority of people in a country and be capable of supplying the necessary information for city wide management. Within that analytical framework each tool is developed with a reference group of partners including the profession involved, civil society, research and training institutions, also to build its robustness, legitimacy and use. Tool development is undertaken within the framework of big science.

  1. The Affordable Land Systems Proposition. The conventional land administration system being used globally cannot serve the needs of the majority or fast growing cities and small towns. Instead we must develop affordable land systems that can cater for the majority of people in our generation.
  2. The New Forms of Tenure Security Proposition. Freehold ownership cannot be scaled to cover the majority of people in the developing world for another 6-10 years. Instead we must create legal frameworks built around the continuum of land rights.
  3. The Conventional Land Administration Tools Proposition. Conventional tools are not fit for purpose to supply tenure security for the majority and capture the land information needed for city wide slum upgrading, city extension and densification. Instead we must develop new land tools to ensure ample serviced land supply such as participatory inclusive land readjustment, new forms of city wide slum upgrading, Social Tenure Domain Model, value sharing between the public and private sector, pro poor land records.
  4. The Planning, Land and Servicing Delivery Systems Proposition. Current systems being used by cities, such as planning, land, services, cost recovery, often do not cover the whole city in developing countries leading to the proliferation of informal settlements. New fit for purpose systems have to be developed and implemented. These systems in the land sector need new tools which require new methods of action research to design robust approaches.

Propositions for addressing the issue

  1. The Land Tenure Proposition: the water and sanitation needs of dwellers in informal settlements cannot be met without first addressing the land tenure insecurity issues.
  2. The Right to Dignity Proposition: people face a loss of dignity when sanitation facilities are not available in the near vicinity. As the saying goes, water is life, sanitation is dignity.
  3. The Gender Violence Proposition: Any effort to improve sanitation in Nairobi’s slums must include efforts to reduce the culture of violence as well as the structural factors that enable violence against women to continue.

4. The Affordable Housing Proposition: Akiba Mashinani Trust believes in the building of affordable housing units equipped with water and sanitation systems for slum dwellers as a way of tackling the persistent inadequacy of water and sanitation systems in informal settlements.

Clarissa Augustinus is Unit Leader of Land and the Global Land Tool Network, Urban Legislation, Land and Governance Branch, UN-Habitat. She is the leader of the Global Land Tool Network, which has 64 international partners including the World Bank, Slum/Shack Dwellers International, the Association of African Planning Schools, the International Federation of Surveyors. She has been the global focal point for urban land in the United Nations system for 11 years. This has exposed her to the global challenges. GLTN works to find solutions. While holding a PhD in Social Anthropology, she was a Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Engineering, Surveying and Construction, on land management, at the University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. She is widely published.
mp3 iconAddressing Global Land Challenges – Clarissa Augustinus
Global Land Tool Network Webpage UN-Habitat/GLTN 2012 Handling land: Innovative tools for land governance and secure tenure GLTN 2012 Designing a Land Record System for the Poor Antonio, D. Makau, J. and S. Mabala 2013 Addressing the Information Requirements of the Urban Poor – A Government-Community Partnership in Piloting the Social Tenure Domain Model in Uganda, Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty 2013 Cain, A. Beat, W. and M. Festo 2013 Participatory inclusive land readjustment in Huambo, Angola
Urbanization & Demographics: The Coordination Problem - Robert Buckley, The New School
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This lecture is based on the realization that little attention is being paid to the inexorable increase in urban populations, particularly in very low income countries. Buckley argues that industrial coordination problems are no doubt important, but so too is the avoidance of increasingly dysfunctional cities.
robert Buckley1The lecture is based on the realization that little attention is being paid to the inexorable increase in urban populations, particularly in very low income countries. Almost all of the world’s next 2 billion people will live in these already slum-invested cities, with likely adverse effects on economic development as well as increased social exclusion. Instead of focusing on the issues involved with coordinating a coherent policy response to this demographic trend, the development agenda has focused on how coordination problems in supporting industry can be overcome. Robert Buckley argues that these industrial coordination problems are no doubt important, but so too is the avoidance of increasingly dysfunctional cities. Analysis of the evidence indicates that urban development in many places is not following the traditional perspective that the “bright lights” of cities are drawing migrants. In many places, it is troubled countrysides that is inducing what some have called a “pathological urbanization” pattern. It is also the case that cities are now being planned after their occupants have arrived rather than in anticipation of growth – as did the grids in New York and Barcelona. The result is chaotic cities without sufficient public space to realize agglomeration economies with dense, fetid slums. Finally, in many low income countries enormous cities are emerging populated by families with income levels lower than those that characterized early industrial cities. In those places it is difficult to afford the kinds of large scale investments that produced the “modern” cities of the mid 19th and early 20th century with their transport, water, sanitation, and electricity. Business as usual in these cities could have catastrophic outcomes. There are many practical steps that could be taken to improve this situation, but constraining them is the lack of realization of how important this demographic trend is likely to be, and how little capacity exists to deal with it. Propositions for addressing the issue: First, slums are a form of social exclusion. But, they may be much than that. They may be undermining the foundations for development; Second, if the first is true we need to rethink the approach to urban development. Cities in the developing world have become “homes of desperation” for millions of people; Third, the accepted development agenda – “the binding constraints to growth” – has not recognized cities’ role.
Robert Buckley is the Studley Fellow at the New School in New York City. Prior to that he was a lead economist and advisor at the World Bank and Managing Director at the Rockefeller Foundation. He contributed to the Growth Commission work on developing a new development perspective in Urbanization and Economic Growth, a book he co-edited with Michael Spence and Patricia Annez. He has written widely on urbanization and housing policy in both the academic and popular press. During the past few years has focused on urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa.
Urban Economy in the New Millennium - Michael Cohen, The New School
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Michael Cohen, The New School, in this lecture illustrates data about economic growth that demonstrate how cities act as engines of national economic development.
Michael Cohen1 Michael Cohen in this lecture illustrates data about economic growth that demonstrate how cities act as engines of national economic development. In 2008, for the first time in human history, half the world’s population lived in urban areas. Due to agglomeration economies, approximately 80 percent from global GDP is coming out of urban-based economic activities; 600 urban centers generate about 60 percent of global GDP. Yet, without the right focus, agglomeration economies can have deleterious negative externalities, such as harmful environmental effects, urban poverty, and intra-urban inequalities. In addition, the lecture addresses the issue of climate change, which represents a major threat to cities. The city is the space of opportunity for growth. Cities can also serve as a remedy in periods of economic crisis and help sustain employment. Since 2009, G-20 discussions have reduced their attention to urban employment even though most of the “demand” which governments wish to stimulate exists within cities. The stimulus package after the Global Crisis in 2008 did not focus enough on urban issues. This resulted in reduced investments into the urban arena, which in turn increased urban poverty and unemployment, worsened the distribution of income, and lead to growing squatter settlements. This lecture suggests that the productive side of the city needs more attention in urban planning. Propositions for addressing the issue:

  1. Statistical trends indicate the large share of urban contributions to national economic development. This confirms the assumption that cities are opportunities for growth and sustainable development.
  2. Cities can serve as remedies in times of global crisis.
  3. A neglect of this trend leads to reduced investments in urban areas. This in turn increases negative externalities from agglomeration economies, which can have adverse effects on the entire country.
  4. Almost 50 percent of all cities are already dealing with the effects of climate change. Especially urban flooding causes a serious and growing development challenge.
  5. Urban governments, in coalition with various actors, need to produce a broader, comparative, empirical framework that can examine more deeply what is happening to capital and labor in relation to urban growth.
  6. Land and land policies are central to this process.
Michael Cohen (Ph.D., University of Chicago) is Director of the International Affairs Program. Before coming to the New School in 2001, he was a Visiting Fellow of the International Center for Advanced Studies at New York University. From 1972 to 1999, he had a distinguished career at the World Bank. He was responsible for much of the urban policy development of the Bank over that period and, from 1994-1998, he served as the Senior Advisor to the Bank’s Vice-President for Environmentally Sustainable Development. He has worked in over fifty countries and was heavily involved in the Bank’s work on infrastructure, environment, and sustainable development. He is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences Panel on Urban Dynamics. He has taught at the University of California at Berkeley, The Johns Hopkins University, and the School of Architecture, Design, and Urban Planning of the University of Buenos Aires.
 
Mass housing requires mass housing finance - Marja Hoek Smit, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
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In this lecture Marja Hoek Smit argues that housing finance is critical to solve the housing problem, increasing, as it does, the number of households that can afford to acquire a house in the formal market, which in turn will make large scale development of middle and lower middle income housing possible.
Marja Smit1 In this lecture Marja Hoek Smit argues that housing finance is critical to solve the housing problem, increasing, as it does, the number of households that can afford to acquire a house in the formal market, which in turn will make large scale development of middle and lower middle income housing possible. Access to housing finance is described as equally important for investors in rental housing of all types. The lecture discusses the positive characteristics of mortgage lending compared to alternative housing finance options, as well as the reasons for mortgage systems to remain small in many urbanizing emerging market countries. It calls for changes in policy to address these constraints. The Mass Housing Finance approach draws on housing finance system-, macro-economic- and urbanization data collected by the Housing Finance Information Network (HOFINET: www.hofinet.org) for more than 130 countries and on country case studies of successful approaches to expand access to housing finance. Rapid urbanization is unavoidable in countries of Africa and South and East Asia, yet formal housing construction is a fraction of new urban household formation, resulting in the relentless growth of informal housing. Alleviating this pressure in the housing market by increasing access to mortgage and rental housing finance Hoek means will stimulate formal sector housing development by the private sector and will free up government funds to deal with the housing problems of the lowest income groups. While the size of mortgage markets is positively related to GDP per capita and financial sector development, policies make a major difference. The lecture also highlights the link between policies to open up new urban land with titles and the need to develop housing finance systems. Propositions for addressing the issue: Enforceable pledge/lien on real property systems Legal infrastructure that supports housing finance and alternative pledge structures Regulatory infrastructure related to conduct-of-business and safety-and-soundness, including risk mitigation systems, payment systems Effective methods to establish property value Competitive financial markets Efficient non-distorting taxation and subsidy systems that support housing finance expansion
Marja C Hoek-Smit is the Director of the International Housing Finance Program of the Wharton School Zell/Lurie Real Estate Center, and an Adjunct Professor in the Wharton Real Estate Department of the University of Pennsylvania. Her work focuses on housing markets, urban and housing policy and subsidy systems, and the deepening of housing finance systems, particularly in developing and emerging market economies. She is also the founder and Executive Director of the Housing Finance Information Network—HOFINET—a global web portal that consolidates international housing finance information and statistical data for public use. She has worked in more than 40 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South and East Asia, and Latin America. She currently works on housing/ finance policies in Egypt, South Africa, Mexico, The Philippines and Myanmar.
Urban Drainage & Green Infrastructure - Chris Jefferies, Urban Drainage specialist
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Chris Jefferies, Urban Drainage System Expert, in this lecture addresses the need to reduce the impact of city development of flooding on residents and in other places, and the worsening of the water quality in streams, rivers and lakes caused by the expansion of cities.
Chris Jefferies This lecture addresses the need to reduce the impact of city development of flooding on residents and in other places, and the worsening of the water quality in streams, rivers and lakes caused by the expansion of cities. Jefferies believes the most appropriate current solutions involve Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) but SUDS can only be implemented with good policies, supportive stakeholder groups and partnership working so that these new ideas, which cut across existing methods and practices, can be accepted. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems require several changes in thinking and practice in city planning and there are many barriers to progress including the perceived costs added to development, the increased maintenance activities required, the attractiveness of big infrastructure projects to politicians whereas drainage projects are very often just ‘normal work’. The inertia of planning systems also tends to discourage the good new ideas involved. However, the perceived additional costs need to be set against the costs of losing habitats and the fish, food and other ecosystem services which follow, and the damage to properties and danger to people caused by flooding which frequently results from development. The barriers to more sustainable drainage are high but a whole portfolio of potential ‘Green’ infrastructure solutions are available to be applied in any city in the world. There are no particular problems for high cost, high value developments since the additional costs of drainage are small and green space is normally an integral element. However, for most urban developments where money is tight, drainage solutions on a development site are likely to be hard concrete with no financial allocation for maintenance. Consequently, to achieve more widespread use of sustainable drainage principles, greater integration into Green Infrastructure is necessary, and multiple benefits need to be clear. Otherwise the whole life costs will not be properly recognised. Major developments and redevelopments give the opportunity for the reallocation of open space to improve its use through multiple functions. Sustainable drainage has the potential to provide habitat improvements which provide places for breeding, give connectivity between SUDS and with natural areas, and, link directly to zones of natural habitats thus providing more sustainable solutions and greener solutions to drainage problems.
Chris Jefferies is a world leader in the design and planning of sustainable urban drainage systems(SUDS). With collaborators, he has co-authored much of the SUDS guidance used in the United Kingdom including the seminal design manual from CIRIA, ‘The SUDS Design Manual’.He has undertaken research in association with construction companies, materials suppliers and with governmental/ regulator organisations. He has worked very closely with local authorities and Water Companies in Scotland and various European countries on the implementation of the technical standards which apply to SUDS. He was a partner in the EU FP6 research programme SWITCH and delivered the SWITCH Transition Manual. Chris has now retired and is working on a part time basis. He retains his academic interests through one European project – the E2STORMED – which is concerned with the energy issues associated with SUDS in six countries around the Mediterranean.
Densification in consolidated informal settlements - Peter Ward, University of Texas
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In this lecture Peter Ward from The University of Texas at Austin presents data drawn from a nine-country/eleven city collaborative study that examines self-built housing in old established low-income neighborhoods formed 25-40 years ago.
Peter WardPeter Ward in thus lecture brings up the issues of 1) How to address the often forgotten needs for in-situ rehabilitation of the physical structure and design after 30 years or more of intensive use? 2) In a context where Wills are rarely used, and/or forced heirship is the norm, how to manage the transfer and provision of clean title to second generation beneficiaries, as the parents pass away? 3) How to increase renting and non-owner housing opportunities in these settlements? 4), How to engage the community and neighborhood in rehab and renovation without displacement that often accompanies external urban regeneration projects. In short: how does one make room in the existing housing stock? The lecture will present data drawn from a multi-country/city collaborative study to examine self-built housing in old established low-income neighborhoods. The location of many of these consolidated settlements makes them increasingly desirable locations sand a likely target for back-to-the-city densification and urban regeneration governmental policies. This threatens to generate pressures for displacement and to enhance gentrification. The challenge will be to ensure mixed-use and mixed income residential development associated with densification and infilling. Propositions for addressing the issue:

  1. Consolidated self-help settlements that formed 30 years ago are rarely on the radar screens of policy makers, there is an urgent need to think about housing rehab within the context of the housing stock in the innerburbs.
  2. The sociology and household arrangements of these neighborhoods are poorly understood, including: the low mobility and turnover of ownership; the dynamics of physical dwelling expansion and consolidation; the succession by second generations as they inherit and continue to use the properties of their parents.
  3. The housing market in these innerburbs is dysfunctional because few owners wish or are able to sell-out due to ongoing use value, housing needs and expectations of their adult children, and a lack of formal financing to facilitate sales and buy-outs by other lower income families.
  4. Past title and tenure regularization programs will be thrown into disarray and titles will become clouded if programs of low cost title transfer are not developed to facilitate sales and inheritance.
  5. We need to think about low-cost building applications and user behaviors that that embody “green” and sustainable living practices.
Peter M. Ward holds the C.B. Smith Sr. Centennial Chair in US-Mexico Relations, and is professor in the Department of Sociology (College of Liberal Arts), and in the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs where he also serves as the Associate Dean for Research. He has worked as housing policy adviser for the Mexican government and held senior academic positions at the University of London and the University of Cambridge prior to moving to Texas in 1991. He was formerly director of the Mexican Center at the University of Texas LLILAS, and served as Executive Editor of the Latin American Research Review between 2002-07. He is the coordinator of the multi-city Latin American Housing Research Network.
SEASON ONE

Find a PDF with a summary of all lectures from season one here.  

Street-Led City Wide Slum Upgrading - Claudio Acioly, UN-Habitat
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The strategy brought forward by Claudio Acioly (UN-Habitat) uses streets as the natural conduits that connect slums spatially and physically with the city and treats streets not only as a physical entity for mobility and accessibility — through which water and sewerage pipes, power lines, and drainage systems are laid – but also as the common good and the public domain where social, cultural and economic activities are articulated, reinforced and facilitated.
Claudio AciolyThis lecture proposes a fundamental shift in addressing the problems of slums, and suggests an approach that focuses on streets as the engine for urban transformation. The strategy brought forward by Claudio Acioly uses streets as the natural conduits that connect slums spatially and physically with the city and treats streets not only as physical entity for mobility and accessibility – through which water and sewerage pipes, power lines, and drainage systems are laid – but as the common good and the public domain where social, cultural and economic activities are articulated, reinforced and facilitated. Acioly also presents an approach to slums that advocates a shift from piecemeal and project-based interventions in single slums towards a citywide approach that intervenes incrementally in multiple slums simultaneously. It is argued that this approach results in an incremental process of integration and regularization of slums into the overall city management and planning. Acioly makes a business case and draws on several case studies and practical experiences from different parts of the world that demonstrate the use of streets in slum upgrading and the role of streets in physical transformation of slums. This reveals that the proposed approach is not new, but what is new is the deliberate decision to start the slum upgrading interventions based on the streets and definition of the street network, and bring this to citywide scale. It is argued that this will gradually create the urban configuration and establish the future urban layout of the slum settlements and thus lay the basis for legalization and regularisation of land tenure. The street-led slum upgrading approach requires the preparation of an area-based plan, with the participation of local residents, defining a spatial structure for the settlement and the basic street pattern. Such a process of planned upgrading would require opening new streets, widening existing streets and carving out public open spaces. This inexorably entails demolitions and resettlement to land ideally located within or nearby the settlement. The tradeoffs involved in this process need to be considered by the community before arriving at a decision. Acioly’s lecture argues that streets trigger economic activity, attracting shops, services and increased residents’ identity with their place of residence, bringing an enhanced sense of security and orderly development. The introduction of public lighting and mixed use along a street’s route is likely to bring more usage and social interactions amongst residents with positive impacts on the sense of public safety. But equally important is the naming of streets and numbering of houses establishing unequivocally the physical addresses and locations, enabling residents to gain an address and postal code, the first steps in gaining citizenship rights.
Claudio Acioly Jr. is an architect and urban planner with over 30 years of experience as practitioner, technical and policy advisor, consultant and training and capacity development expert in over 30 countries of Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. He is currently chief Training and Capacity Development of UN-Habitat. During the period 2008-2012 he was chief Housing Policy of UN-Habitat and coordinator of the United Nations Housing Rights Programme. He was also coordinator of the Advisory Group on Forced Evictions to the Executive Director of UN-Habitat. He has published widely and lectured on housing, slum upgrading, land policies and community-based action planning. He has been keynote presenter in various international symposia and global conferences and is visiting lecturer in several international post-graduation education programmes.
Making Room for a Planet of Cities - Shlomo (Solly) Angel, Stern School of Business, New York University
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The lecture is based on the realization that the current urban planning paradigm championed in the United States and Europe—the Containment Paradigm, also known as urban growth management, smart growth, or compact city—is inappropriate in the rapidly-urbanizing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Instead, it calls for a new paradigm for coming to terms with rapid urbanization: The Making Room Paradigm.
Shlomo Angel“Making room for a planet of cities” argues that the current urban planning paradigm championed in the United States and Europe—the Containment Paradigm, also known as urban growth management, smart growth, or compact city—is inappropriate in the rapidly-urbanizing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Instead, Solly Angel calls for a new paradigm for coming to terms with rapid urbanization: The Making Room Paradigm. The Making Room Paradigm draws on data collected from a sample of 120 cities, extracted from a much larger database, and is based on the realization that rapid urban population growth and its rapid concomitant urban expansion are inevitable and that cities need to secure the lands for essential public works—an arterial infrastructure grid and a hierarchy of public open spaces—well in advance of their expansion for them to become more efficient, more equitable, and more sustainable. Solly Angel introduces the containment paradigm in Seoul, Korea and notes that it has lead to a serious loss of housing affordability. At the other end of the spectrum, Bangkok, Thailand, which did not try to contain its expansion and created a lot of highly affordable housing. But Bangkok laissez-faire failed to allow for enough land for public works, particularly land for arterial roads and trunk infrastructure. The result has been that traffic in Bangkok is restricted to a few arterial roads and is one of the world’s most congested cities. Angel advocates the adoption of a making room paradigm in rapidly growing cities. That paradigm requires the adoption of a four-step action program: 1. Realistic projection of land needs: correctly estimating the amount of land required for expansion, based on good population projections and assessments of density decline; 2. Generous metropolitan boundaries: the expansion of the current city limits to accommodate the entire projected area of expansion, so as to make it possible to plan and implement the expansion program; 3. Acquiring the rights-of-way for an arterial grid: planning an arterial road grid, 30-meter-wide roads spaced one-kilometer apart that can carry public transport and trunk infrastructure in expansion areas and securing the land for that grid; and 4. Securing the land for a hierarchy of public open spaces: identifying critical open spaces, large and small, that need to be protected from development and creating an institutional structure to protect them.
Shlomo (Solly) Angel is a Senior Research Scholar and Adjunct Professor of Urban Planning at the Urbanization Project, located at the Stern School of Business of New York University. He is the leader of the Urban Expansion Initiative there, an action program aimed at preparing cities in rapidly urbanizing countries for their inevitable expansion. The Initiative is now working with four cities in Ethiopia and five cities in Colombia on implementing the Making room Paradigm there. Angel is the author of Planet of Cities [Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2012] as well as numerous books and articles on housing and urban development focused on developing countries. He has worked as an advisor to UN Habitat, the World Bank, and the Inter-American Development Bank, and has taught urban planning at the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok, at Princeton, and at New york University.
Slums - Past, Present and Future - Eugenie Birch, University of Pennsylvania
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In this lecture, Eugenie Birch draws heavily on history to illustrate the location, pace, trajectory, documentation and varied solutions of historic slum conditions in Western Europe and North America; tracking contemporary slum development in Latin America, Asia and Africa, and outlines the commonalities and differences with past experience. Birch places slum development in stages that correspond to the urbanization rates and peak growth of slums of the places in question, and discusses adaptations, their benefits and costs.
Eugenie BirchIn this lecture Eugenie Birch demonstrates the growth of slums and associated solutions over time, explaining the reasons for their formation and the various approaches employed to improve substandard conditions. She argues that, as shown by history, comprehensive planning that includes attention to providing sufficient land and services is essential for improved living conditions. Ameliorating slum conditions (i.e. what we call slum upgrading today) is an essential but not the sole component of addressing the problems caused by rapid urbanization overtime. In conclusion Birch suggest that constructive approaches that include enhancing the supply of land and housing, dealing with land transactions and creating a standard regulatory environment have been and will be key elements of successful urban policy of the past and hold promise for addressing issues of the present and future. The lecture draws heavily on history to illustrate the location, pace, trajectory, documentation and varied solutions of historic slum conditions in Western Europe and North America; tracking contemporary slum development in Latin America, Asia and Africa, and outlines the commonalities and differences with past experience. Birch places the slum development in stages that correspond to the urbanization rates/peak growth of slums” of the places in question, and discusses adaptations, their benefits and costs.
Eugenie L. Birch, Nussdorf Professor of Urban Research, Department of City and Regional Planning, School of Design, University of Pennsylvania; co-Director, Penn Institute for Urban Research, has written extensively on issues of planning history, housing reform and global urbanization. Most recently, she was a co-convenor, along with the Economist Intelligence Unit and the Forum for the Future of the Transforming the Future of Cities Seminar, Bellagio Center, August 2013 funded by the Rockefeller Foundation.
 
Transforming cities with transit - Robert Cervero, University of California, Berkeley
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Drawing from the recent publication “Transforming Cities with Transit”, the director of the Institute of Urban and Regional Development and professor of City and Regional Planning at UC Berkeley, Robert Cervero, calls for elevating the role of public transit in creating sustainable urban futures.  Concentrating pedestrian friendly, mixed-use development near transit stops, supplemented by congestion pricing, is one promising strategy.  Given that a large share of future urban growth will be in small to medium size cities, opportunities for integrating Bus Rapid Transit investments and urban development, Professor Cervero argues, should be exploited to the maximum degree possible. 
Robert CerveroIn rapidly urbanizing and motorizing cities of the world, massive investments are being made in high-capacity transit systems to fend off worsening traffic congestion. Most investments have been guided by engineering principles, focused on improving mobility but failing to capitalize on opportunities to reshape the growth of cities in more sustainable urban formats.  Cervero in this lecture argues that transit stations can become viable hubs of compact, mixed-use, pedestrian-friendly development, however a number of prerequisites are essential for this occur, such as distinguishing roles of stations as logistical versus place-making nodes. A mixed-methods approach is used to underscore these points, focusing on case experiences. Statistical relationships between urban densities, vehicle-kilometers per capita, and public-transport ridership per person are examined for cities worldwide using intrametropolitan data from Seoul and intermetropolitan data from UITP and other sources.  Experiences in Seoul, Portland, Bogotá and Ahmedabad are explored. Cervero argues that a fundamental change in conceptualizing large-scale transportation investments is needed that frames them as both mobility-enhancing and  city-shaping opportunities, providing a backbone for guiding growth in a more compact, mixed-use and sustainable urban format. Case experiences provide valuable policy insights in this regard: 1. Often, long-range strategic planning and urban development objectives are usurped by near-term engineering and cost-minimization objectives, resulting in Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and metro lines being routed and stations sited in areas with minimal development potential. 2. Transit-oriented redevelopment requires the public sector to share development risks through pro-active policies such as helping with land assemblage, financial and tax incentives, targeted supportive infrastructure investments, and regulatory reforms that incentivize compact, mixed-use development. 3. Auto-restraint policies are often need to be introduced in parallel with Transit Oriented Development (TOD) to off-set the hidden subsidies that promote automobility. 4. TOD presents tremendous value-capture opportunities that generate revenues needed not only to fund high-quality transit investments but also the station-area armature and related improvements. However, Cervero states there must be the institutional capacity and political will to capitalize on land-price benefits.
Robert Cervero is the Freisen Chair of Urban Studies and Professor of City and Regional Planning at the University of California, Berkeley, where he also directs the Institute of Urban and Regional Development (IURD) and the University of California Transportation Center (UCTC).  Professor Cervero’s research centers on the nexus between urban transportation and land-use systems.  He has authored or co-authored six books, more than 50 research monographs, and over 200 journal articles in these areas, including the just released book, Transforming Cities with Transit (2013, World Bank). Professor Cervero currently chairs the International Association of Urban Environments and the National Advisory Committee of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Active Living Research Program.  He also serves on the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and is a contributing author to the 5th IPCC assessment.  He is a contributing author to UN-Habitat’s 2013 Global  Report on Sustainable Mobility.
 
Citizen roles in resilient cities - Ron Dembo, Zerofootprint
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This lecture focuses on the role of citizens in developing cities, and shows that without the right behaviour and an engaged population even with the best infrastructure, cities will not be resilient. Ron Dembo explains how software, targeted incentive schemes and a sharp focus on the demographics of the city can be used to facilitate engagement and highlights examples where a top down drive and a zero tolerance on unsocial behaviour can help cities achieve resilience.
Ron Dembo When we discuss resilience in cities we usually focus on infrastructure. Little attention is paid to the role citizen engagement and behavior change plays in making cities resilient. In this lecture Ron Dembo argues that without the right behavior and an engaged population, even with the best infrastructure cities will not be resilient. Focusing on how software, targeted incentive schemes and a sharp focus on the demographics of the city can be used to facilitate engagement, it also highlights examples where a top down drive and a zero tolerance on unsocial behavior can help cities achieve resilience. Propositions for addressing the issue: Electricity: run regular “fire drills “ to get the population to be ready for a sharp drop in availability e.g. Fukushima. Institute a single “currency for good” that rewards citizens for socially beneficial behavior. Learn from cities like New York and others on how to get to a more resilient, engaged population
Ron Dembo is the founder and CEO of Zerofootprint, a company that uses software to engage and reward the positive behavior of large groups of individuals. Prior to founding Zerofootprint he founded and grew Algorithmics, the largest enterprise risk management software company in the world with over 70% of the worlds largest financial institutions as clients. Prior to Algorithmics he was a Professor at Yale University, cross appointed in Computer Science and Management. He sits on a number of boards and in 2007 was honored as a Fields Institute Fellow for his contribution to the Institute and to Canadian Mathematics.
 
Incremental Housing – The new site & services - Reinhard Goethert, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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Informal builders provide the bulk of affordable housing and define large areas of our cities. Originally created for those long considered as poor and unable to house themselves, over time the resultant informal housing generally matches higher income standards. This incremental process has been adopted by governments into programmes called ‘site and services’, focusing on housing and land development, and embracing process as the key. A methodology to capture this process has been developed which offers a base for developing effective policies in supporting the incremental builders.
Reinhard GoethertThe rapid urban population surge of the 60s driven largely from migration with resultant massive unauthorized city expansion provided challenges in finding effective housing interventions.  Upgrading programs became widespread despite high monetary and spatial costs. This lecture focuses on a mimic of the informal housing process which offered a direction for policy, adopted in the 70s by development agencies worldwide and known as ‘site and services’. Difficulties and unresolved challenges in these projects ended their attraction and they fell out of widespread use by the mid 80’s. However, as credible studies indicated that urban population growth was expected to double in the next 20 years, a ‘site and services’ approach has again recently become the option of choice for housing intervention as one of the few proactive options available.  After-the-fact ‘catchup’ policy of upgrading communities as the policy choice was no longer seen as sufficient. Reinhard proposes that to learn from the successful informal developments as seen everywhere around the world, and to tap their energy and resources, is providing a viable affordable option – this pay-as-you-go process is a key way by which families succeed. However, the process takes a long time, with a clear burden on the families.  Safety concerns of proper construction and lack of appropriate skills are challenges to the family-builders, particularly when additionally confronted with effects from global climatic change. Longitudinal surveys of informal areas and the previous site and services projects of the 70s offer a base for understanding the informal process and suggest areas of necessary and successful intervention. Reinhard argues that the focus should continue the shift to ‘starter core units’ that can be expanded by owner energies, as they provide initial security and a frame for expansion, while also offering a ‘safe room’ for the increasing disasters from environmental change. A wide range of ‘starter’ options are now available to fit specific situations, from single story units to multi-story expandable apartments for increased densities.  Support/guidance for densification of existing housing provides an effective strategy for mitigating expensive urban sprawl. Standards need to be reoriented to reflect and embrace an incremental, pay-as-you go process. Funding support, and technical assistance needs to be reoriented. Infrastructure can also be developed incrementally, to parallel growth and demands at both neighborhood and house scales.
Dr. Reinhard Goethert teaches at MIT, champions the informal building energy which is defining city growth, and stresses innovative participatory approaches. He directs SIGUS – the Special Interest Group in Urban Settlements, and is the secretarial for the Global University Consortium Exploring Incremental Housing. His background includes the design of site and services projects, training programs for international development agencies, and community approaches in rebuilding after disasters.
 
Participation in practice - Nabeel Hamdi, Oxford Brookes University
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This lecture outlines the impact of participation on practice, in particular how it can expand the scope and nature of practice in order to add strategic value to practical work. Nabeel Hamdi introduces the issues of equity and efficiency and their convergence in participatory work, and articulates the value of participation in building community and in human development. 
Nabeel HamdiThis lecture outlines the impact of participation on practice, in particular how it can expand the scope and nature of practice in order to add strategic value to practical work. Nabeel Hamdi introduces the issues of equity and efficiency and their convergence in participatory work, and articulates the value of participation in building community and in human development. The U.N. World Development Report 2013 cites enhancing equity and enabling greater voice and the participation of citizens as two of its goals in improving global governance.  Examples of projects and research demonstrates the value of participatory work in good governance, in particular, how more equity is key to more efficiency (participatory budgeting, the glass house project, the work of Involve and the New Economics Institute, etc). Evidence also suggests three cross cutting themes which recur as a measure of the success or failure of projects and programmes: ownership, organisation and asset building. When negotiated through participatory practices rather than imposed or gifted, Hamdi argues that these three inter related themes serve to ensure the sustainability of programmes and their scaling up in size and impact. The lecture is structured around two main themes: 1. Equity and efficiency in participatory practice 2. The value of participation and partnerships in making practice more strategic. Propositions for addressing the issue: Inducing change, in practice procedure, in professional conduct, and the change, which is induced when we intervene. Crossing boundaries, and breaking down barriers between levels of organisation, between disciplines, between knowledge and know-how. Dealing with primary causes of problems not just symptoms. Reducing vulnerability by ensuring through participation more access to essential resources in order to sustain livelihoods. Managing constraints, both programme constraints and constraints to accessing resources. Going to scale, scaling up ideas, methods and programmes in size and impact. Learning lessons, which change the way we think, do and organise.
Nabeel Hamdi qualified at the Architectural Association in London in 1968.  He worked for the Greater London Council between 1969 and 1978, where his award winning housing projects established his reputation in participatory design and planning.  From 1981 – 1990 he was Associate Professor of Housing at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he was later awarded a Ford International Career Development Professorship.  In 1997 Nabeel won the U.N. – Habitat Scroll of Honour for his work on Community Action Planning. He has consulted on participatory action planning and upgrading of slums in cities to all major international development agencies and to charities and NGO’s worldwide.  He is the author of Housing without Houses (IT Publications 1995) Small Change (Earthscan 2004) The Placemakers Guide to Building Community (Earthscan 2011) and co-author of Action Planning for Cities (John Wiley and Sons 1997).
mp3 icon Participation in Practice – Nabeel Hamdi
 
The notion of prosperity - Mohamed Halfani, UN-Habitat
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Mohamed Halfani (UN-Habitat) outlines the notion of prosperity as it relates to the work of UN-Habitat. This introduction to the theme of urban prosperity highlights the disjuncture between current developmental dynamism of cities as exhibited in high levels of material generation and exponential growth in innovation coterminous with abysmal poverty, inequality and environmental degradation. A paradigm shift is suggested which calls for encompassing development dimensions which transcend a narrow economistic focus.
Mohamed HalfaniAs the world moves into the urban age, the dynamism and intense vitality of cities become even more prominent. .A fresh future is taking shape, with urban areas around the world becoming not just the dominant form of habitat for humankind, but also the engine-rooms of human development as a whole. This ongoing evolution can be seen as yet another assertion, albeit on a larger scale, of the time-honoured role of cities as centres of prosperity. In the 21st as in much earlier centuries, people congregate in cities to realize aspirations and dreams, fulfill needs and turn ideas into realities. Prosperity in this broader, organic sense transcends narrow economic success to encompass a socially broad-based, balanced and resilient type of development that combines tangible and more intangible aspects. This teaser to the theme of urban prosperity highlights the disjuncture between current developmental dynamism of cities as exhibited in high levels of material generation and exponential growth in innovation coterminous with abysmal poverty, inequality and environmental degradation. A paradigm shift is suggested which calls for encompassing development dimensions which transcend a narrow economistic focus. Propositions for addressing the issue: While Cities have served as engines of growth and dynamism, the resulting prosperity has been fractured and un-inclusive; Increasingly inequality tends to dominate, protests and discontent are rife, the overall urban sustainability is under threat; There is a need to revisit the notion of prosperity with a view to articulating a more organic, people-centred and integrated construct which all can strive for.
Mohamed Halfani is currently Head of Research at the United Nations Human Settlement Programme (UN-Habitat). He was formerly Head of Urban Development Branch at the same institution. For over 20 years he was a scholar based at various universities and research centres in Africa, Canada and the United States. He also served as the Director of Cabinet at the then Organisation for African Unity. His publications are in the areas of urban governance, African administrative systems, as well as knowledge and research networking.
mp3 icon The Notion of Prosperity – Mohamed Halfani
 
Handmade architecture as a catalyst for development - Anna Heringer, UNESCO Chair for Earthen Architecture
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In this lecture, Anna Heringer presents a series of projects where the choice of building materials and techniques has had a major influence on distribution of resources, participation and equality. Emphasizing that ‘we cannot build houses of only steel and concrete for seven billion people’ she proposes a strategy of bringing global creativity to the local materials, local skills and local potentials.
Anna HeringersAnna Heringer in this lecture stresses that architecture is a tool to improve lives, not only by providing roofs over peoples heads but to provide an architecture that contributes to dignity, a benevolent society and to cultural diversity. In this, the choice of the material and building technique has a major input on the distribution of resources, on participation and equality. Heringer emhasizes that ‘…we cannot build homes for seven billion people in steel and concrete only’. One global strategy for sustainable building is instead to apply global creativity to local conditions and labour, and local natural building materials. As natural building materials are not standardized they are therefore very labour intensive, which creates work opportunities. Anna Heringer encourages designers to when proposing a design ask themselves the question: ‘What would happen if seven billion people design and build the same way?’ If answered honestly, she proposes the answer to this question would make the world a bit more fair regarding the distribution of the profit, more diverse in terms of architectural language and culture, and avoid the exploitation of the planet`s ecosystem, saving it for future generations. She states that on a long term, the process is just as important as the architectural outcome. In the challenge to create shelter for all she believes the main tasks to be:

  1. To search for potentials in the existing
  2. To raise the trust of communities in their own skills and resources
  3. To train people in the enhanced usage of naturally and locally available construction materials
  4. To build up the self-confidence of individuals and groups through participation
  5. To create work opportunities
  6. To foster cultural diversity

Through this achieving not only shelter, but also more equality and a more peaceful as well as creative society.

Anna Heringer is an architect and Hon.Prof. of the UNESCO Chair for Earthen Architecture, Constructive Cultures and Sustainable Development in Germany. She established her international reputation in sustainable architecture with the METI School in  Bangladesh, that she designed for her graduation thesis and realized in 2006 together with Eike Roswag. Since then, Heringer has further developed her award-winning approach based on the use of local materials and labor in several projects and workshops in Asia, Africa, Europe and the US, as well as in her teaching as visiting professor at Linz, Stuttgart and Vienna. She has recieved a number of awards, including the Aga Khan Award for Architecture and the Global Award for Sustainable Architecture.
 
Pro-poor solid waste management - Marijk Huysman, Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies
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Marijk Huysman bases her lecture on the importance of accessible and effective urban waste collection services for public health, environmental conditions, productivity and aesthetics of cities. Yet evidence shows that waste services are often failing poor people. She argues that long before the concept of green growth was embraced as an urban development trend, informal waste workers have made a significant economic and environmental contribution to urban centers and also provides a source of income for millions of people worldwide. 
Marijk1.jpg Marijk Huysman bases her lecture on the importance of accessible and effective urban waste collection services for public health, environmental conditions, productivity and aesthetics of cities. Yet evidence shows that waste services are often failing poor people. She argues that long before the concept of green growth was embraced as an urban development trend, informal waste workers have made a significant economic and environmental contribution to urban centers and also provides a source of income for millions of people worldwide.Despite this fact, local governments insufficiently recognize, ignore or even oppose the work and livelihood of waste workers. Informal waste workers are increasingly being pushed aside by privatisation of solid waste systems and by waste treatment methods such as incineration and waste-to-energy technologies. Huysman concludes by posing the question how to create SWM systems that benefit the urban poor – both as service users and as service providers? Huysman argues that failures of waste services and shortcomings in waste management approaches vis-à-vis the urban poor are the result of a lack of accountability of public and private organisations to the needs and demands of poor people. When considering for instance privatization of waste services, there is a wider range of options available than engaging commercial-oriented, large-scale and often internationally affiliated firms. By reviewing a number of strategic approaches and practices, the lecture looks into ways to arrive at pro-poor and inclusive SWM systems. Propositions for addressing the issue: Lack of accountability by urban authorities to the needs and demands of urban poor citizens. Urban SWM approaches and practices should be shaped by clearly defined output goals, indicators and assessment methods for inclusive and pro-poor orientation. Inclusive waste service provision requires direct involvement of poor service users or their representatives in the creating of access to waste services; matching services with the local conditions and affordability of the poor; creating win-wins; redefining privatisation by broadening the range of service providers; creating opportunities for social privatization and community-based service provision. Need for recognition of informal waste work and the support of decent job creation requires legal endorsement of practices; facilitation and integration into existing SWM systems; supporting programs to improve professional skills, work efficiency  and livelihood.
Marijk Huysman is a senior academic staff at the Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies (IHS), an international educational institute under the Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Within the IHS she coordinates the Urban Environmental Management Department.

She is an urban sociologist specialized in integrated solid waste management and environmental planning and management who has been engaged in EPM and in the world of waste for over 25 years. Starting in the 1980’s with a research on waste picker communities in the city of Bangalore (India) and the coordination of a research project on linkages between formal and informal SWM systems in three Indian cities, she has been intensively involved in research and advisory work related to pro-poor waste management approaches.

In her position as university lecturer and trainer, she has been teaching and supervising practitioners and MSc students from all over the world on sustainable and inclusive SWM. Marijk has educational and consultancy experience in Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin-America.

mp3 icon Pro-poor Solid Waste Management – Marijk Huysman
 
A rights-based approach to urban development - Urban Jonsson, the Owls
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Urban Jonsson – Executive Director at The Owls and former regional director of UNICEF, in this lecture outlines a human rights based approach to sustainable urban development. Starting from the basic premise that ‘all humans are born good’, he discusses how this applies to the ongoing global efforts to achieve a sustainable urban future.
Urban JonssonOver the last 20 years different concepts of city development have been discussed and applied, including ‘Inclusive Cities’, ‘The Right to the City’, ‘Urban Prosperity’, and ‘Sustainable Urban Development’. In most of these approaches the process of urbanization and the resulting outcome – The City – have often been dealt with separately. Urban Jonsson argues that development can be reconstructed or seen as the progressive achievement of desirable outcomes through the adoption of acceptable processes. In this sense urbanization is the process that results in a desirable city. A Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA) to Development aims at achieving human rights standards relevant outcomes, for example the right to adequate housing, through the adoption of processes that adhere to human rights principles of equality and non-discrimination, inclusion and participation, and accountability and the rule of law. In a similar way the HRBA recognises the ‘City with Rights’ as a desirable outcome through the process of ‘Sustainable Urbanization’, adhering to all human rights principles. Urban Jonsson emphasizes that it is ‘…neither a well designed and implemented urbanisation, nor a City with rights realised – it is BOTH a good PROCESS and a desirable OUTCOME. It is about the achievement of a City with Rights through an Urbanisation Process satisfying human rights principles.’ The lecture concludes with the observation by Jonsson that a massive training effort in the understanding and use of a HRBA would be required for building the capacity of key stakeholders, including relevant UN staff, to be able to use the approach in practise. He argues that HRBA should not be seen as just another ‘add-on’ in development work, but must be fully recognised as a very new form of re-constructing the reality. It is important to realise that human rights-based development is not a choice but is required by each United Nations Organisation according to the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Dr Urban Jonsson is the Executive Director of The Owls, an international consultancy company specialized in Human Rights and Development based in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Dr Jonsson is a leading authority on the Human Rights-Based Approach to Programming (HRBAP). While Senior Adviser to the Executive Director of UNICEF on HRBAP, a position he retired from in 2004, he operationalised this approach globally.  Between 1994 and 1998 Dr Jonsson served as UNICEF’s Regional Director for South Asia focusing on nutrition and child labour issues. He then moved to Nairobi as the organisation’s Regional Director for Eastern and Southern Africa (ESARO), focusing on the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Prior to joining UNICEF, Dr Jonsson worked at the Swedish Food Research Institute (SIK) and was Head of the Planning department at the Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre (TFNC). From 1980 until his transfer to UNICEF, Dr Jonsson was Programme Officer at the World Hunger Programme, United Nations University in Tokyo.
 
City Prosperity Initiative - Eduardo Moreno, UN-Habitat
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“The City Prosperity Initiative” presents UN-Habitat’s new global initiative that aims to reinforce local capacities for cities to improve well being and prosperity through a new monitoring tool (city prosperity index) a policy dialogue based on a conceptual framework (the wheel of prosperity) and the creation of action plans with sustainable urban solutions. The lecture presents both the origin of the city prosperity index and its evolution into a global initiative. 
Eduardo1 “The City Prosperity Initiative” presents UN-Habitat’s new global initiative that aims to reinforce local capacities for cities to improve well being and prosperity through a new monitoring tool (city prosperity index) a policy dialogue based on a conceptual framework (the wheel of prosperity) and the creation of action plans with sustainable urban solutions. The lecture presents both the origin of the city prosperity index and its evolution into a global initiative. The 20th century of urbanization is unsustainable on many grounds: high consumption of land and energy, growing inequalities, distortions in the form and function of the city, environmental damage, etc. This model has resulted from a functionalistic view of the city and a distorted notion of prosperity that is based on a wealth accumulation pattern. In order to respond to this, UN-Habitat has proposed a notion of prosperity that aims to help cities to steer growth towards a more sustainable urban future. This notion translates operationally and conceptually into a new index and a policy dialogue based on the six dimensions of prosperity: productivity, infrastructure, quality of life, equity, governance and laws, and environmental sustainability. Eduardo L. Moreno explains how the city index was created based on city surveys and policy research. He then introduces the main characteristics of this index and the initial grouping of cities across the world that go from solid, moderate and weak factors of prosperity. Each one of these groups have specific features that reflect the stage of development of cities and their technical and institutional capacities, which impact differently over the six dimensions of prosperity. Moreno presents the objectives of the global initiative, indicating the technical support that UN-Habitat offers in various areas, such as institutional analysis, strategic thinking, training and capacity development, urban futures analysis, and policy simulations — all designed to help cities to advance on the prosperity path in a more sustainable manner. The lecture concludes with a presentation of the benefits that the global initiative brings to cities that are part of it, which include:

  1. In-depth and customized estimation of the City Prosperity Index
  2. Diagnostic and action plan with policy recommendations to advance prosperity
  3. Best and emerging practices to advance practical solutions and strategies
  4. Local monitoring mechanism to transfer the method of the CPI to the city
Eduardo López Moreno is the Director of Research and Capacity Development at UN-Habitat. He has over 20 years of academic and professional experience in housing and urban development policies, institutional analysis and urban poverty alleviation issues. He has an extensive number of publications: five books on topics related to social housing, land policies and urban development. Dr. López Moreno is the Task Manager and principal author of the State of the World’s Cities Report 2006/7, 2008/9 and 2010/11, one of the UN-Habitat flagship reports.
mp3 icon City Prosperity Initiative – Eduardo Moreno
 
Urban Informality - Marginal or Mainstream? - Janice Perlman, The Megacities Project
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In this lecture, Janice Perlman discusses urban informality against the background of 40 years of research in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro. The lecture lays particular emphasis on how the changes over this timespan have affected the lives of the people in the favelas. She concludes by introducing the Mega-Cities project strategy to ‘shorten the lag time between ideas and implementation’ in urban problem solving.
Janice PerlmanThere are already a billion people living off the grid in shantytowns and that number is expected to double by 2030 and triple by 2050 – meaning 1/3 of the world’s population. In this lecture Janice Perlman argues that if we continue to marginalize rather than embrace the people in these vibrant communities, we will miss out not only on their consumer and producer power and their active citizenry, but most of all, on their intellectual capital. She stresses that we need all the brain power we can get to confront the complex challenges of making cities work, and that is impossible without the full participation of all urbanites. Research on 12 National Slum Upgrading Cases done by WBI in partnership with UN-Habitat, Cities Alliance and GTZ showed that it is easier to install physical urban infrastructure then to address livelihoods, social services and structural reforms (particularly in land tenure). Perlman concludes with the proposition: “If we can figure out how to tap into the vitality and creativity of the people living in informality DESPITE the power differences, and how to LIBERATE the creativity from the bottom up, we will be taking a big step towards the future we hope to see.“ Sub Propositions:

  1. Research and evaluation studies need to be done over time as initial results can be misleading.
  2. What was marginal is becoming the new mainstream
  3. Urban innovation and creativity are stimulated through diversity, density and proximity, not homogeneity.
  4. Inclusive cities will not be achieved through urban design but through social change: new incentive systems, rules of the game and players at the table.
  5. The “right to the city” and the right to human dignity are fundamental to sustainable, convivial cities
  6. The dichotomy between “the city for all” and “the world-class city” is false because the first is a prerequisite for the second.

Barriers to be overcome in National Slum Upgrading include: conflicts between affordable housing and well located housing; political considerations in site selection and resource-allocation versus areas of greatest need; for success, need to plan for the time and budget needed to build trust and involve the community; lastly, physical improvements make better photo ops but investment in human and social capital make better cities.

Janice Perlman is an independent scholar and the founder and president of the Mega-Cities Project, a transnational non-profit dedicated to shortening the lag time between ideas and implementation in urban problem solving.  She is now developing Mega-Cities/Mega-Change, or MC2 with the next generation of urban leaders and technologies. Her recent book, FAVELA: Four Decades of Living on the Edge in Rio de Janeiro (OUP) won two PROSE Awards, consecutive Fulbright Fellowships and a Guggenheim. Her seminal book, The Myth of Marginality (UC Press), won the C. Wright Mills Award. She was the first recipient of the Chester Rapkin Award. A former Professor of City and Regional Planning at UC Berkeley, Perlman has taught at Columbia, NYU, Trinity, the University of Paris, and the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. She was Coordinator of the Neighborhoods Task Force of the National Urban Policy; Director of Strategic Planning for the NYC Partnership; and Director of Science, Technology and Public Policy at the New York Academy of Sciences.
 
How can we transcend slum urbanism in Africa? - Edgar Pieterse, University of Cape Town
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In this lecture, Edgar Pieterse, professor at the University of Cape Town and the founding director of the African Centre for Cities, puts forward the concept of the underlying logic of slum urbanism. This logic in turn manifests in an overall urban form that can be characterised as ‘extreme splintered urbanism’—a pattern of urban development that manifests in sharp urban divides, the privatisation of key urban services and infrastructure linked to large-scale slum neglect over long periods of time. 
Edgar PieterseEdgar Pieterse in this lecture argues that data about economic incorporation into the labour market and living conditions demonstrate that the majority of African urban dwellers live in conditions of vulnerability, and that economic insecurity reinforces slum living and makes it difficult for states to access sufficient tax revenues to address a variety of urban pressures. Pieterse poses the question: “if we acknowledge this tough reality, how can we formulate policy agendas that can break this cycle of exclusion and injustice?” The lecture provides a macro framework to develop alternative modalities of urban management and governance rooted in ethical values and practical experiences. Pieterse puts forward the concept of the underlying logics of slum urbanism, which in turn manifests in an overall urban form that can be characterized as ‘extreme splintered urbanism’—a pattern of urban development that manifests in sharp urban divides, the privatization of key urban services and infrastructure linked to large-scale slum neglect over long periods of time. In response the concept of Urban Operating Systems is introduced to identify the macro entry points for transforming urban systems over 2-3 decades. The operating systems are: infrastructure, economy, land markets and the governance. Alternative approaches to each are identified as a provocation for further research and praxis. Propositions for addressing the issue: Probable statistical trends with regard to work and living conditions indicate that the majority of urban dwellers in Africa will find themselves in conditions of insecurity and informality. These trends create a negative spiral that perpetuates slum urbanism. The cumulative impacts of slum urbanism is the production of a polycrisis as various pressures—water, electricity, waste, ecosystem degradation, land scarcity, democratic deficits, and so on—reinforce and exacerbate each other. Urban governments in coalition with various actors need to get ahead of these trends and produce long-range strategic frameworks that can systematically shift the underlying logics of the urban system. The Urban Operating Systems framework provide an accessible and comprehensive lens to do so.
Edgar Pieterse is holder of the South African Research Chair in Urban Policy. He is founding director the African Centre for Cities (ACC) and is professor in the School of Architecture, Planning and Geomatics, both at the University of Cape Town. His research stems from the borderzone between geography, planning and cultural studies with a strong orientation towards political philosophy. He is consulting editor for Cityscapes—an international magazine on urbanism in the global South. His most recent co-edited books are: Africa’s Urban Revolution (Zed, 2014); Rogue Urbanism: Emergent African Cities (Jacana, 2013); African Cities Reader II: Mobility & Fixtures (Chimurenga, 2011). At present he is leading a policy process to formulate the “Integrated Urban Development Framework” for South Africa.
 
Post-industrial dynamics and urban housing - Hugo Priemus, Delft University of Technology
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In his lecture on “Post-industrial dynamics and urban housing”, Hugo Priemus advocates a mixed urban housing strategy to provide high-quality urban housing for knowledge workers and affordable housing for middle- and low-income households. 
Hugo PriemusThis lecture deals with post-industrial cities being a production environment for personal and business services, and the associated issues and needs for those cities to be attractive for knowledge workers & low-income households. (Mega-) cities are presented as nodes in a variety of global networks such as: networks of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT); traffic networks including not only cars, buses and trains but also planes and ships; green networks such as nature, parks and public spaces in cities; blue networks such as rivers and lakes. Propositions for addressing the issue: Affordable housing strategies: reducing costs of urban land and construction, and regulating rents in such a way that for an occupied rented dwelling rents can only be adapted once a year within an acceptable range. Social housing institutions: it is crucial that not-for-profit private institutions are active, embedded in a national Housing Act, which provide housing for household with a low to modest income. On the one hand they are not allowed to adopt risk selection in allocating housing. On the other hand they have to prevent stigma and spatial segregation. Housing allowances as an entitlement; the national Constitution must be based on UN Human Rights, including the right for every household for decent housing. This is an instruction norm for national legislation to obtain affordable housing of an appropriate quality. Allocation according to need; in the upper part of the housing market demand and prices may determine housing allocation. In the lower end need must play a decisive role in the allocation of housing, such as handicaps, specific needs of the elderly and large families. Reusing vacant office buildings; in many cities ICT reduce the space needed for office work. Vacancy in many offices is structural. These buildings could be reused for housing and creative activities. Reducing energy costs; the reduction of energy costs is important for environmental reasons but also for the affordability of housing. More control by occupants over their housing environment; both tenants and owner-occupiers want to control their dwelling and the housing environment more. It increases their satisfaction and the quality-of-life if this demand can be met.
Hugo Priemus is professor emeritus in Housing, OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology (the Netherlands). He has conducted research into housing, urban development, urban restructuring, land policy, transport and infrastructure. He is Knight in the Order of the Dutch Lion, honorary doctor of the University of Uppsala and holder of the gold Medal of Delft University of Technology and the Hudig Medal. He was research-coordinator for two Dutch Parliamentary Enquiry Committees: on Building Subsidies and on Infrastructure Projects.
 
Fostering resilience through community based innovation - Mary Rowe, Municipal Art Society of New York
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Based on her work experience in post-Katrina New Orleans and post-Sandy New York City, the Municipal Art Society of New York’s Director of Urban Resilience and Livability, Mary Rowe, discusses the role of self-organization and granular innovation in urban resilience-building.  Highlighting examples from New Orleans, New York City, and cities around the globe, Ms. Rowe focuses on the need for a collaborative process to build resilience that takes advantage of the systems and features already in place in the urban ecosystem.
Mary RowePeople who live and work in neighborhoods know best the opportunities and constraints that are present there. While government, institutions and the private sector may seek and promote large-scale solutions, often local artists, entrepreneurs and activists are better equipped to respond nimbly and imaginatively, developing innovations quickly that can later be ‘scaled up’. What are the enabling conditions that foster community-based resilience? What are the examples of granular initiatives that deliver both a livability and a resilience benefit? Are there approaches of local approaches that can be applied to cities around the world? In 2010 the Municipal Art Society of New York began focusing on integrating resilience outcomes with its long-time focus on livability. Urban advocacy, much like city departments, had become strictly siloed, leaving resilience to the purviews of engineers and scientists, and livability to advocates for culture and economic development. The need for shared approaches than benefit both has become an imperative for a diverse city-building movement that increasingly includes urbanists from every profession and walk of life. But granular efforts are often over-looked by public bureaucrats and institutional investors, looking for simple, one-size-fits-all solutions. Large-scale, unitary approaches are costly, very slow to approve, are not fool-proof, and may often crowd out more modest but equally effective hyper-local approaches that can be easily adapted to local conditions, designed and adjusted quickly, engage local communities directly, spawn spin off innovations and local economic, social and environmental benefits. Propositions for addressing the issue: Creating ‘networks of practice’ that connect local innovators – ‘urban practitioners’ working to boost the livability and resilience of their cities. Creating peer-to-peer learning platforms encourages experimentation and tinkering – reducing the ‘stakes’ so failure can be easily and quickly risked, and approaches adapted until effective. Successful approaches can be broadly communicated, and then adapted to other cities/communities/scales Resilience is a capacity that must be cultivated at all scales. Policies and funding must find ways to enable and support this capacity being developed. Pilots demonstrating the effectiveness of granular approaches to building resilience and livability provide opportunities for bridging the challenges and opportunities in cities around the world.
Mary W Rowe is currently Vice President & Managing Director of the Municipal Art Society of New York City, a century-old advocacy organization working to promote the livability and resilience of New York City through effective urban planning, land use, and design.  Mary directs resilience work at MAS, including convening and community engagement to build local resilience-building strategies; MAS’ support of Rebuild by Design, an initiative of President Obama’s Sandy Task Force to stimulate innovative design solutions to make the region more resilient; and the MAS’ global City-Builder Network, a peer-to-peer learning platform connecting urban practitioners contributing to the livability and resilience of cities around the world.  Previously she spent five years learning about granular approaches to urban innovation while supporting the New Orleans Institute for Resilience and Innovation, a loose alliance of initiatives that emerged in response to the systemic collapses of 2005, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. She has a particular interest in self-organization in cities, as the underpinning of urban social, economic, cultural and environmental resilience.
 
Value Capture as a land based tool to finance development - Martim Smolka, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy
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Based on the recent publication ‘Implementing Value Capture in Latin America’ the Director of the Latin American Program at Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Martim Smolka, explains the mechanism of value capture and its sustainability prospects. Smolka focuses on a sample of emblematic cases in the Latin American region, with an analysis that considers the equity and efficiency content, and evaluates actual and potential revenues these instruments generate under different local institutional socio-political circumstances.
Martim SmolkaFocusing on a sample of emblematic cases of value capture implementation in the Latin American region the analysis in this lecture considers their equity and efficiency content, and offers some comments on sustainability prospects. Smolka evaluates actual and potential revenues these instruments generate under different local, institutional, and social-political circumstances and presents policy recommendations on the relevance of this instrument to third world-countries in general, and Latin America and the Caribbean in particular, to meet the challenges of providing a sufficient supply of serviced land and social housing at affordable prices for the urban poor. The lecture is based on an extensive documentation review of the longstanding history and recent growing popularity of value capture practices in Latin America. It covers an ample set of instruments that are actually implemented among jurisdictions and the wide variation in their effectiveness and coverage. Taking on the most successful cases/jurisdictions the analysis exposes conventional prejudices informing the resistance to their implementation more broadly. Smolka argues that resistance to apply value capture instruments are heavily loaded in misconceptions with respect to the impact on prices, legal base (e.g. alleged acquired rights); and prejudices regarding its social content. Moreover, contrary to common perception the impact of successful value capture policies on real estate development has been minimally disruptive, and that willingness to pay directly associated with the perception of received benefits. It is suggested that an improved understanding of the link between public intervention and increased land value is conducive to building fiscal and planning cultures that will strengthen property taxes, local revenues, and urban management in general. Propositions for addressing the issue: Value capture is still viewed primarily as a tool to promote equity in cities, rather than as a way to improve municipal fiscal autonomy and urban development in general; Although revenues and incidence is still low, high performance otherwise ‘typical’ jurisdictions indicate that value capture  policies can be broadly considered in the region; More successful cases seem to be associated to local efforts –  in the form of creative tools or special spins to address identified concrete needs.
Martim O. Smolka is an economist with a MA and PhD in Regional Science from the University of Pennsylvania. As director (since 1995) of the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy’s Latin American Program, he directs research and educational programs on issues relating to land markets and land policies.  Smolka has developed (and lectured in) more than 600 educational programs for high-level public officials, members of the academia, NGO leaders and other professionals, over the last eighteen years throughout Latin America and globally.
 
From Agropolis to Ecopolis – Towards regenerative cities - Stefan Schurig, World Future Council
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In this lecture, Stefan Schurig (World Future Council) talks about the vision of regenerative cities as the greening of the urban environment and the protection of nature from urban expansion, and above all else, about the greening of urban systems of production, consumption and construction. Schurig proposes necessities to transform cities into ‘regenerative’ systems. The case studies presented on urban production, consumption and management of energy, waste, food and water are extracted from World Future Council research and the analysis stems from the most recent WFC report on regenerative cities.
Stefan SchurigThe concept of regenerative urban development aims to ensure comprehensive strategies for an enhancing, restorative relationship between an urbanising humanity and the ecosystems which we draw resources from for our sustenance. Currently, most of our cities are designed along the services related to the combustion of fossil fuels. For example, city life and public space are hugely impacted by the space needed for cars. In fact, modern industrialisation is utterly dependent on the combustion of fossil resources such as coal, gas and oil. However, across the world, a wide range of technical, management and policy solutions to wean cities off of fossil fuels are already available, with vast ecological, social and economic benefits. This lecture proposes what is necessary to transform cities into ‘regenerative’ systems. The case studies presented on urban production, consumption and management of energy, waste, food and water are extracted from World Future Council research and the analysis  stems from the most recent WFC report on regenerative cities. The promotion of sustainable, competitive and secure sources of energy is prominently outlined to demonstrate the scope of the challenge. Germany’s Energiewende is presented as an excellent example of the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead in the energy sector. Stefan  outlines two main challenges: Cities need to take active steps towards making efficient use of resources; In addition, looking beyond urban boundaries, cities also need to find ways to develop a mutually beneficial relationship with their surrounding regions. Most modern cities have a linear metabolism: Resources flow through the urban system without concern about their origin or the destination of waste by-products. Inputs and outputs are treated as largely unrelated. Fossil fuels are extracted from rock strata, refined and burned, and the waste gases are discharged into the atmosphere. Raw materials are harvested and processed into consumer goods that ultimately end up as rubbish which cannot be easily or beneficially reabsorbed into living natural systems. For Ecopolis to become reality there must be a focus on and understanding of urban metabolism as well as form and land use.
Dipl. Ing. Stefan Schurig is an architect by training, but has devoted most of his career to energy and climate change issues. Before he started working for the World Future Council (WFC) in 2007 he was the spokesperson for Greenpeace in Germany and headed the Greenpeace Climate and Energy department for nine years. During this time he also co-founded Germany’s second largest green electricity supplier. In 2004 Schurig was appointed as member of the REALISE Forum, an international platform on renewable energy policies led by the European Commission.
 
On compact, Integrated & connected cities - Raf Tuts, UN-Habitat
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The Urban Planning and Design focus area of UN-Habitat aims to support cities, regional and national authorities in adopting improved policies, plans and designs for more compact, socially inclusive, better integrated and connected cities that foster sustainable urban development and are resilient to climate change. This lecture provides an introduction on why this is relevant and how it can be achieved. The lecture first briefly describes UN-Habitat’s twin mandate of adequate shelter for all and sustainable urban development, and then goes on to explain how urban densities have significantly declined over the years in all parts of the world, exacerbating urban challenges like sprawl, segregation and congestion. From this Raf Tuts reviews various planning approaches for rapidly growing urban areas and goes on to explain how national urban policies, city-region planning and planned city extensions can help creating more compact, integrated and connected cities.
Raf Tuts“Compact, Integrated and Connected Cities” focuses on what UN-Habitat intends to achieve in the strategic plan focus area of urban planning and design. The Urban Planning and Design focus area of UN-Habitat aims to support cities, regional and national authorities in adopting improved policies, plans and designs for more compact, socially inclusive, better integrated and connected cities that foster sustainable urban development and are resilient to climate change. The lecture provides an introduction on why this is relevant and how it can be achieved. The lecture first briefly describes UN-Habitat’s twin mandate of adequate shelter for all and sustainable urban development. It then explains how urban densities have significantly declined over the years in all parts of the world, exacerbating urban challenges like sprawl, segregation and congestion.  It then reviews various planning approaches for rapidly growing urban areas. It then goes on to explain how national urban policies, city-region planning and planned city extensions can help creating more compact, integrated and connected cities. The lecture ends with a global outlook, identifying several global processes that contribute to this new urban agenda. Propositions for addressing the issue: Rafael Tuts explains how the current business model of urban development too often leads to sprawl, segregation and congestion. To turn this around towards more compact, integrated and connected cities, three complementary approaches are proposed: 1. National Urban Policies: providing an overarching coordinating framework to address urban challenges to maximize the benefits of urbanization, while mitigating potential adverse externalities 2. City-region planning: connecting local and national spatial frameworks with focus on: a) working with nature b) leveraging density c) optimizing infrastructure d) clustering for competitiveness 3. Planned City Extensions: pro-active creation of space for urban expansion, with focus on: a) sound legal framework, b) appropriate design parameters c) sustainable financial plan
Rafael Tuts is Coordinator of the Urban Planning and Design Branch of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, UN-Habitat, based in Nairobi, Kenya. The current focus of his work is to support national, regional and city authorities to achieve compact, integrated, connected and inclusive cities that are resilient to climate change. This is being implemented in over thirty countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. He is also contributing to the formulation of Sustainable Development Goals, mandated by the Rio+20 Conference. Earlier assignments for UN-Habitat included Localising Agenda 21, the Global Campaign on Urban Governance and strengthening local government capacity development institutions. Before joining UN-Habitat, he worked for the Department of Architecture, Urbanism and Planning of the University of Leuven and the Housing Research and Development Unit of the University of Nairobi. He authored and co-edited several publications on a wide range of sustainable urban development topics.
10 things designers need to work on - Christian Werthmann, Leibniz University Hannover
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 Christian Werthmann from Leibniz University, Hannover, summarizes his international experience of non-formal urbanism into ten points aimed to act as a guideline for designers intending to work in these contexts. Based on real life experiences and research he describes what is essential to keep in mind when designing towards sustainable urbanization in dense urban environments. This lecture was filmed in association to the Metropolis Nonformal – Anticipation symposium in Munich 2013 including the launch of the Laufen Manifesto for a Humane Design Culture.
Based on UN Habitat projections that close to half of future urban growth will be defined as “slums”, the lecture addresses the need to train future designers and practitioners to bring actual improvement to these neighborhoods. The attitudes and mindset of these future trainees will critically influence the outcome of their work. Therefore a critical discussion of education hallmarks is paramount. The 10 considerations are based on Christian Werthmann’s five year investigation of numerous small and large scale improvement projects in Latin America as wells as the outcome of two symposia titled “Metropolis Nonformal” curated by Werthmann (held in 2011 and 2013). During this study it became clear that the current training of designers and planners is inadequate to address the diverse and different universe of nonformal urbanism and the key paradigms for education have to be formulated. Propositions for addressing the issue: 1. Terminology: The terminology of informality is imperfect. A value neutral vocabulary has to be found. Patronizing language produces patronizing plans. 2. Comprehension: we have to get to a deeper understanding of neighborhoods that are fully or partially self- organized in order to avoid the infliction of harm by trying to improve them. 3. Collaboration: participation has to be superseded by collaboration on an eye-to-eye basis. 4. Transdisciplinarity: Community experts have to be on an equal level with design, engineering & planning experts. 5. Process: designing and finding the right process is as important as the product. 6. Food and Water: one should never loose track of designing for basic survival. 7. Economy: all design and planning should aim to generate long-term work opportunities. 8. Multifunctional: every intervention has to fulfill multiple needs. 9. Multiscalar: no neighborhood can be studied and improved in isolation from its city, region and country. 10. Beauty: is an essential need and an engine for pride of underprivileged populations. These considerations are not comprehensive. Nonformal urbanization is highly diverse, therefore, this list is meant to start a discussion.
Christian Werthmann is a Professor at the Institute of Landscape Architecture, Leibniz University Hannover. Werthmann researches the implementation of ecological infrastructure in emerging cities, a line of research that he initiated as an Associate Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. His most recent research is concerned with landscape strategies for post-disaster reconstruction in Port-au-Prince (Haiti) and anticipatory urbanization strategies for the landslide prone hills of Medellin (Colombia). 
mp3 icon10 things Designers Need to Work On – Christian Werthmann
     

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